电子烟被发明十几年,电子烟又成为了一个热门话题



电子烟被当做为传统香烟的替代品,于2003年被韩力(Hon Lik)发明,并被公众所知。从2003年至今,在群众质疑声、政府部门的管制和电子烟爱好者的支持簇拥之下,电子烟http://www.vapeyan.com/市场得到了迅速发展。

最近电子烟又成为了一个热门话题,继6月旧金山市颁布相关法律(颁布了什么法律,最好写上)禁止销售电子烟之后,美国密歇根州宣布将在该州禁止销售带香味的电子烟,仅允许烟草味电子烟及不添加香味的电子烟销售。除此之外,美国食品药品监督管理局、美国疾病控制和预防中心等机构8月30日表示,正在对215例与使用电子烟有关的严重肺病病例展开调查。这一系列监管措施以及调查给发展势头迅猛的电子烟市场带来了很大的阻击。

电子烟被发明十几年,起步晚,但发展迅猛

回顾电子烟的发展历史,自从1930年出现电子烟这一概念后,电子烟的发展我们可以分为概念到专利、商业化尝试,到如今电子烟市场的百花齐放,共经历了九个阶段。

电子烟自2004年问世来,全球抽电子烟人数规模不断扩大,使用人数从2011年的约700万迅速上升至2016年的3500万,2021年有望增长至5500万,在各类型烟草制品中,电子烟占比逐年提升。从2017年开始,电子烟市场受欧美国家监管加强影响,蒸汽类电子烟市场增速将有所放缓。

随着抽电子烟人数的增加,电子烟被越来越多的吸烟人群视为传统烟草的替代品出现在市场,其市场规模也在不断地增长,其市场规模与使用电子烟人数正相关。除此之外,虽然电子烟对身体的伤害和传统电子烟对身体伤害的影响,那个更小还不得而知,但是电子烟宣传中所提到电子烟对身体伤害低于传统烟草的观点被越来越多的人所接受。

电子烟在各国和地区属性定位差异给电子烟的监管以及电子烟市场的发展带来了挑战和困难

但是,随着与电子烟相关研究的增加以及很多地区和国家政府出台相关政策制度,将电子烟及电子烟市场进行规范化管理和监督。不同国家和地区对电子烟的属性定位和监管措施有所不同。

与电子烟属性定位的不同,电子烟监管措施也有所不同。全球有很多国家和地区因将电子烟视为烟草制品,有些国家将电子烟视为医药产品,也有一些国家将电子烟视为普通消费品,因而对电子烟的监管措施也有错有所不同。各国对电子烟的管制措施主要集中在生产、销售、使用、包装标示以及广告赞助、税收等5个方面。以美国为例,各州采取不同措施以减少青少年接触电子烟的渠道;美国FDA已将电子烟纳入广告监管,欧盟也对电子烟广告宣传作了严格的限制。

目前在我国电子烟被视为一般消费品进行监管。不同于美国、日本等国家,我国吸烟率远高于美国、日本,我国吸烟人数超过3亿,7.4亿非吸烟人群受二手烟危害,相比于传统烟草,对电子烟的监管措施比较有限、比较宽松。目前,电子烟更多地被视为科技产品出现在市场上。过去几年我国电子烟市场发展迅速,虽然欧美国家是主要市场, 但全球近 90%的电子烟及其配件在我国生产。

电子烟发展面临着困难与挑战

我们所有人有过就医经历,在就医时时医生会对所有将服药的患者吩咐:不宜吸烟,服用任何药物时都不宜吸烟。因为烟碱会加快肝脏分解药物的速度,服药时吸烟会导致人体中总血药浓度的下降,影响药效。

就在过去的9月4日,美国密歇根州禁售香味电子烟;9月6日,美国印第安纳州卫生部门确认8例严重肺损伤病例与吸电子烟相关,在调查另外20多例疑似病例。美国疾控中心(CDC)确认因使用电子烟就医的病例超过450例。

电子烟在取代传统烟草制品成为吸烟者的新选项、市场规模不断扩大的同时,也面临着在政府监管政策的限制于束缚。很多科研机构院所也在对电子烟对身体的影响方面进行评估和研究,具体评估和研究结果拭目以待。

电子烟属于烟草制品,还是属于医药产品,亦或是属于一般消费型科技产品?目前还没有明确答案,世界卫生组织(WHO)对电子烟的属性定位还未确定,在我国因电子烟的属性定位尚未明确,法律监管的边界也未确定。

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