探索电子烟的长期危害需要6年的时间,需要800个人


“电子烟是否对身体有害?”这是电子烟亘古不变的争论话题之一,自从诞生之日起,这个疑问就一直伴随着电子烟。

尽管全世界有许多机构、团体和学者们都试图找出真相,但在一些媒体的误导之下,关于电子烟的正确信息并未传递给公众,反而是断章取义的虚假信息让公众对电子烟产生了误解。
 

即便是英国卫生部官方经过多年研究得出的结论“电子烟比香烟危害低至少95%”,在形形色色的虚假消息面前也显得毫无说服力。

这一切其实在很大程度上也是因为缺乏对电子烟长期系统性的研究而造成的。

平心而论,正如很多反电子烟人士所持的观点那样,即便电子烟在短期内对人体没有明显的伤害,但如果十几年、几十年长年累月又会造成哪些危害呢?烟草制品也同样并不是在短期内就会对人体形成明显的病变。(相对而言,其实吸烟后7秒钟至2个小时,一氧化碳和焦油就已经开始影响人体了。)

随着电子烟在世界各国的普及,也从最初类似于“玩具”一样的单一产品而逐渐演变成为了一系列复杂的社会及公共卫生等方面的问题,这就使电子烟的长期使用安全性问题再一次成为了多发关注和争论的焦点。

那么以“年”为单位长期使用电子烟,会对人体造成什么伤害呢?

早在2017年,意大利卡塔尼亚大学与加州大学洛杉矶分校在Riccardo Polosa博士的带领下组成了一个研究团队,对一组9名从未吸过香烟的年轻电子烟用户进行了为期3年半的跟踪调查,监测包括冠状动脉、循环系统和肺部等在内的生命体征。研究团队还追踪了一组12名既不吸烟也从未使用过电子烟的人群作为参考比对。

主要监测项目:

● 血压

● 心率

● 体重

● 肺功能

● 呼吸道症状

● 呼出一氧化氮

● 呼出一氧化碳

● 肺的高分辨率计算机断层扫描(HRCT)

最终研究团队发现,电子烟用户没有呈现出负面的健康结果,事实上结果与非不吸烟不使用电子烟的正常人对比组数据几乎没有区别。

调查结果也说明了每天暴露在电子烟气雾环境中,也没有对健康结果造成重大变化,包括肺功能和肺部炎症。

此外,在HRCT上没有发现明显的结构异常,也没有呼吸道症状的记录。

尽管样本数量较小,也缺乏与吸烟者的相比,但与从未吸烟的群体的数据对比分析,也可以反映出长期使用电子烟对健康的潜在风险。

Polosa教授在澳大利亚悉尼发表研究报告时曾提及:“知道长期使用电子烟不太可能会引起任何重大的健康问题,这很令人欣慰。”

研究人员在为期3.5年的研究中建立了一整套标准的健康监测指标。即使是那些每天消耗电子烟油最多、使用电子烟时间最长的人,也没有显示出心脏或肺部的损伤,甚至平均心率和血压也没有变化。

要知道年轻的吸烟者在开始吸烟后仅仅两年的时间内就会表现出肺损伤的迹象。

尽管这项研究的规模有限,但意义非常重要,因为这是第一次在没有吸烟史的电子烟用户群体身上看到电子烟的长期影响。以往的研究要么受到时间的限制,要么就是研究对象有吸烟史,可能产生的混杂效应,而无法分清病变究竟是香烟还是电子烟所导致的。

就像前一阶段撤回的“电子烟与心脏病”的论文一样,由于研究对象都有过吸烟史,所以很难界定心脏的损害究竟是由于香烟还是电子烟所引起的。
 

△自然杂志刊登原文

这项研究结果对电子烟用户来说是个好消息,但对吸烟者来说同样也是一个好消息,因为许多人因为持续不断的断章取义式的片面研究、以及带有偏见的新闻报道而放弃尝试电子烟。

这项研究于2017年11月17日在英国伦敦举行的电子烟峰会上发布,并刊登在《自然》杂志上。

后续研究即将开始为期6年 参与者将达800人

基于2017年的研究结果,卡多?波洛萨博士(Dr. Riccardo Polosa)决定在2020年再进行一次规模更大的名为“真相”(VERITAS)的追踪研究,在全世界20个以上的国家和地区中寻找800名参与者进行为期6年以上的长期研究,以进一步了解电子烟对用户的长期危害。
 

目前几乎所有对电子烟用户健康状况的评估都是建立在曾经作为烟民的基础之上的,这就造成了很难界定对身体产生的影响究竟是来自于电子烟还是香烟。这项研究将进一步验证这样一个假设,即仅仅使用电子烟并不会对健康造成可测量的影响。

研究的关键是要找到足够多的经常使用电子烟而没有吸烟史的群体,但这样的电子烟用户只占蒸汽人口的很小一部分。
 

VERITAS项目正在积极地征求参与者,要求是必须具有良好的在线网络技能,和良好的组织能力,并能够使用书面和英语口语(及其当地语言)进行良好的沟通。了解电子烟和电子烟文化,申请人必须满足法定年龄,合法在当地购买和使用电子烟。

也许电子烟长期危害的真相将会在6年后水落石出。

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