电子烟MOS管电子烟、电子香烟,设计短路保护



电子烟MOS管

电子烟又名虚拟香烟、电子香烟,主要用于戒烟和替代香烟。它有着与香烟一样的外观、与香烟近似的味道,甚至比一般香烟的口味要多出很多,也像香烟一样能吸出烟、吸出味道跟感觉来。电子烟没有香烟中的焦油、悬浮微粒等其他有害成分。在戒烟意识逐渐加强的年代,电子烟凭借高性能、高品质和高市场竞争力在各种香烟替代品中脱颖而出,带来巨大的经济效益,减少了二手烟给身边的人所带来的危害。

电子烟详细设计

短路保护:

采用芯片本身的低电压复位功能来实现电子烟的短路保护,把芯片的LVR设定在2.4V,当负载端短路时,芯片的VDD脚瞬间被拉低到2.4V以下,芯片复位,NMOS。管的控制脚回到上电复位的状态,即为低电平切断NMOS来保护MOS管。

过充保护

由于电池直接连到芯片的VDD上,通过把芯片内部基准电压作为输入,用VDD来作参考,因为内部基准电压是固定的,所以只要 VDD上的电压有变化时,采到的AD值也会有相应的变化,利用AD值来反算出电池端的电压,当芯片检测到电池电压高于4.2V时,让NMOS的控制脚输出低电平关断NMOS来切断充电端与电池之间的充电回路,防止电池过充。CSU8RP3215芯片采用内部基准,测量电池电压,除了省去了外部参考源, 同时也节省了分压电阻。

电路特性:

1、恒压充电最高电压4.2V

2、充电电流为405mA。

3、也可以调整充电电流,调整第2管脚到地的电阻,计算公式为:ICH = 1216V / RISET 其中,ICH表示充电电流,单位为安培 RISET表示ISET管脚到地的电阻,单位为欧姆。例如,如果需要405mA的充电电流,可按下面的公式计算:RISET = 1216V/0.405A = 3kΩ 为了保证良好的稳定性和温度特性,RISET建议使用精度为1%的金属膜电阻。通过测量ISET管脚的电压可以检测充电电流。充电电流可以用下面的公式计算:ICH = (VISET / RISET) × 1000。

低电压报警:

利用2.2小节同样的ADC检测方式来检测VDD电压(即电池电压),当电池电压低于3.2V时,让NMOS管控制脚输出低电平来关掉NMOS并且通过控制PWM的输出来驱动LED呼吸灯来提醒用户电池电压过低。

雾化过流保护:

通过外部的AD通道来检测NMOS管到地的压降来换算出流过雾化器的电流,一旦检测到雾化电流过大时,芯片会把NMOS管的控制脚置低来关断NMOS管,防止雾化过流。CSU8RP3125的AD检测小信号精准,可电子烟产品的可靠性。

呼吸灯的控制:

利用芯片本身的PWM输出功能,LED灯从灭到最亮的过程中,PWM周期固定的情况下,PWM从低电平开始,每3ms递增一个正宽频,一直到PWM输出为高电平。相反,LED从最亮到灭的过程中,PWM从高电平开始,每6ms递增一个负宽频,一直到PWM输出低电平为止,实现呼吸灯的控制。当电池电压欠压时,呼吸灯的渐变速度时间会变为正常工作的1/3,以此提醒用户需要及时充电。

电子烟组成

目前,电子烟主要针对的是欧美市场,而本次设计选用的芯海CSU8RP3125芯片的ESD(芯片级)HBM模型为8KV,工作温度范围-40~85℃。经测试芯片高速PWM稳定,ADC采样效果好,温漂小,性能可靠。该型号芯片为MSOP-8封装,有利于PCB面积缩减,非常适合电子烟的开发。虽然电子烟有款式或者牌子,一般电子烟主要由盛放尼古丁溶液的烟管、蒸发装置和电池3部分组成。雾化器由电池杆供电,能够把烟弹内的液态尼古丁转变成雾气,从而让使用者在吸时有一种类似吸烟的感觉,实现“吞云吐雾”。它甚至可以根据个人喜好,向烟管内添加巧克力、薄荷等各种味道的香料。

烟杆:

烟杆内部构造使用相同的基本组成部分:一个灯PCBA板,充电电池,各种电子电路。大多数电子香烟是使用锂离子及二次电池电源元件。电池寿命则取决于电池类型和大小,使用的次数和操作环境。并且许多不同的电池充电器类型可供选择,例如插座直充、车充、USB接口的充电器。电池是电子香烟最大的组成部分。

有些电子香烟使用电子气流传感器启动该加热元件,一吸气就会使电池电路工作。而手动感应的需要用户按下一个按钮,然后吸烟。气动的使用方便,手动的电路相对来说比气动稳定,出烟量也比气动的好。随着硬件和软件的发展,有些厂商开始着手研发全自动机械制造电子烟,杜绝使用人工自己布线、焊接或电子,以达到更高的安全性和可靠性。

雾化器:

一般来说烟弹就是吸嘴部分,而有些工厂应客户需求把雾化器和烟弹或者烟油一起粘合起来,做成一次性雾化器。这样做的好处就是可以极大提高电子烟的口味和烟雾量,同时质量更稳定了,因为雾化器是最容易坏的,传统电子烟都是一个单独的雾化器,没几天就坏了。由工厂专业人员注液,避免了自己注液过多或过少导致烟液倒流进嘴里或流到电池部分腐蚀电路的问题,存烟油量也比一般烟弹多,密封性能好,所以他的使用时间比其他烟弹都要久。这种技术现只有极少数品牌拥有。雾化器的构造就是一个加热元器件,通过电池供电发热,使其旁边的烟油挥发,形成烟雾,从而让人吸的时候达到“吞云吐雾”的效果。

电子烟MOS管选型

 

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