什么是电子烟?电子烟是什么?

什么是电子烟?很多人可能只听说话电子烟,并没有详细了解过电子烟是什么,所以小编今天也是为大家整理了资料,帮助各位深入了解电子烟这个产品。
 
什么是电子烟?
 
什么是电子烟?
 
电子烟(英语:Electronic cigarette),正式名称电子雾化器(VAPE,音译“威卜”),是一种以可充电锂聚合物电池供电驱动雾化器,透过加热“烟弹”中的电子液体(俗称烟油、电子果汁、E-liquid或E-juice;含有丙二醇 (PG)、植物甘油 (VG),调味香料或尼古丁),电子烟不需燃烧,只会产生“蒸气”、不会产生烟、二手烟、三手烟,亦无焦油及一氧化碳[1],使部分医学界人士认为其是有潜力的尼古丁替代品,理论上也可以减少部分传统纸烟对身体的影响、火灾发生的可能,并让以电子烟替代纸烟的吸烟人士远离纸烟中致癌物。有关电子烟与香烟对人体的危害之比较仍有争议。英国卫生署曾于2018年提出报告指出电子烟比传统纸烟少了95%伤害且每年帮助两万名吸烟人士戒烟[2],然而此报告所引用之95%数据来源遭部分学者指出证据力薄弱并有利益冲突问题[3]。部分国家尚无明确针对电子烟的管辖法律,对产品品质、尼古丁含量、销售管道及缺乏使用者的监控。
 
什么是电子烟?原理
 
电子烟一般由主机(装有电池,常是锂离子聚合物电池)、电子雾化器(将电子液体填入)二部分组成。烟油以1,2-丙二醇、丙三醇作为主要调和剂,有些加入成瘾物质尼古丁及其他香料成分。雾化器中有雾化芯,用来将电子液体加热为雾气。雾化芯有使用寿命限制。
 
主机有分为电子式及机械式两种主流主机:电子主机多有短路保护机制,当雾化器短路时则自动无法击发,目前市场主流芯片有YiHi及DNA,两种芯片各有其爱用者;机械式主机则完全依靠电学原理作动,传媒中造成爆炸的几乎都是此类型主机,爆炸主因大多是雾化器短路、电池不匹配、没察觉误触连续击发等事故,惟因造型漂亮,收藏者甚多,特殊材质或品牌在市场中也常能炒到高价。
 
雾化器主要分为RDA(Rebuildable Dripped Atomizer;滴油式可修复式雾化器)及RTA(Rebuildable Tank Atomizer;储油槽式可修复式雾化器)两种,据吸食者说法,RDA烟油口味较好,抽多少就滴多少,通常仓内空间较大,可上花式线圈;RTA方便出门在外,油仓注满可连抽,通常仓内空间较小。近期有厂商推出RDTA,有分为在RDA的基础上增加油仓,或是在RTA的基础上加强构造使其接近RDA的烟油表现味道。
 
雾化芯通常是线圈(材质通常是镍)与棉花。棉花吸收烟油后,缠绕其上的线圈通电产生热能,加热烟油。有些雾化芯可以重复绑上新线圈、更换新棉花。
 
什么是电子烟?成分
 
由4种固定成分所组成:蔬菜甘油(VG)、丙二醇(PG)、天然或人工香料还有尼古丁(可选)。然后这种液体会被一个称之为雾化器的加热线圈不断加热,使液体产生烟雾。
 
蔬菜甘油(VG)
 
简称VG,常见的药物与食品添加剂(普遍用于制作蛋糕、巧克力等甜食),对人体没什么副作用,无色无味,非常的吸湿,但比较粘稠,所以会略微增加雾化器的清理难度并降低芯子导油速度(相对容易干烧/糊)。VG可以直接从植物油、椰子油和棕榈油里提取,加热至高温,然后蒸馏提纯。所以正规电子烟液采用的USP食品级蔬菜甘油具有99.7%纯度+0.3%的水。
 
丙二醇(PG)
 
又称PG,是用来稀释VG粘稠度的。吸湿,略有甜味,无色无味,流动性与水类似。美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)对PG的描述是“普遍对人体安全”(仅指摄取),是常见的药物与食品添加剂,PG导油性不错,并产生“少量烟雾”和近似吸烟的“击喉感”。
 
PG已被FDA研究证实归类为安全添加剂(仅指摄取),虽然它也是防冻液的基准物料之一,常用于防冻液领域以及具有特殊要求的食品饮料等领域。PG虽然普遍安全,但还是会有少部分人会对此有些轻微过敏症状,如喉咙不适、多痰、头晕等,这类副作用比较短暂轻微。
 
惟FDA之说法实际上为“Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)”,此定义乃指“摄取”,其他经由吸入、注射、或局部使用等方法并不在GRAS范围内!因此电子烟将烟油雾化后产生之气溶胶其安全性并不在FDA保证范围内。
 
天然或人工合成香精烟油
 
除了有烟草口味外,还能通过各种天然或人工合成的可食用香料来制造复杂多变的口味,比如水果、甜点、饮品等各种味道。
 
尼古丁
 
尼古丁是一种成瘾物质,而在电子烟中可不添加。相比烟草,烟油的尼古丁含量已被证实是在可供人体摄入的安全范围内。烟油中的尼古丁含量从一般是数十毫克以下,也有不含尼古丁的。
 
相比烟草燃烧后释放出的4,000多种有害物质,电子烟烟油的成分是较健康的。而且,当电子烟的尼古丁含量降低到可供人体摄入的安全水平范围内,会对人的身体产生一定的镇静作用,同时还可以提高注意力。
 
什么是电子烟?历史
 
美国人Herbert A. Gilbert在1963年曾取得一款“无烟、非烟草香烟”的专利设计,该装置把液态尼古丁加热,产生蒸气,模仿吸烟的感觉。1967年时曾有数家公司尝试生产该款电子烟,但最终无果而终,而后再没有任何纪录讲述这款装置。
 
2000年,北京中医师韩力提出把尼古丁以丙二醇稀释,并以超声波装置把液体雾化,产生水雾效果(实际是以加热产生雾化气体)。使用者能以此把含尼古丁水雾吸进肺部,向血管输送尼古丁。其中液态尼古丁稀释剂存放在一个名叫烟弹的装置内,以便于携带。2004年,韩力取得电子烟的发明专利,翌年由中国如烟公司销售。随着国外的反吸烟运动普及,电子烟也从中国流入西方世界。
 
2018年3月,日本举办第一届国际电子烟展“Vape Expo Japan”。
 
2018年4月,英国发起全球第一届电子烟月戒烟活动“VApril”,推广民众利用电子烟远离香烟的危害。
 
2018年10月初,深圳会展中心举办国际电子烟展。全球九成的电子烟设备都是在深圳生产。
文章来源:电子烟,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.hhdye.com/1794.html

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