搞不定烟草和吗啡,电子烟就能搞定吗?

本文翻译自2019年9月22日发表于华盛顿邮报的“We failed on tobacco and opioids. Can we get it right on vaping?”一文,有删改。文中所有观点仅代表作者个人意见。

普渡医药因为类鸦药物被层层起诉的新闻,几乎跟高中生电子烟致死的谜一样大的数目同时被曝出来。当然,这纯属巧合,但这个不幸的巧合,却仿佛是上天在警示,这一次,在连败烟草和毒品之后的这一次,我们能及时止损,战胜电子烟吗?

从认识到烟草有害健康到真的开始认真看待烟草的危害,人们用了几十年的时间。几十年间,各种否认实情,各种来自烟草行业的欺诈以及政客的花言巧语,让科学的结论无法快速有效的促进公众的健康水平。

缅因州的一个电子烟店主在演示电子烟

直到前几年,我们才终于承认了类鸦药的广泛传染。而早在二十年前,由于止痛药的开药过度,这一问题就开始出现了,我们却直到现在才开始认真对待。

在对抗以上两者的经验中,长时间的置之不理造成的损失难以想象。根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的数据,从1965年到2014年这半个世纪中,将近2100万人因吸烟及二手烟而非自然死亡。在大烟草公司被迫吐出部分非法所得时,虽然上缴的全部被用于提升公共健康的工作,但还是连损失的零头都补不上。

而且,虽然类鸦药泛滥在很多地方似乎被控制住了,但根据美国疾病防控中心的数据,目前每天都会有130个美国人死于用类鸦药过度。因而,与烟草之战中相同,就算普渡和其他几家对这样的杀戮负主要责任的公司被罚到倒闭,也没法补上已经造成的生命财产损失。

现在,电子烟又来了。

“我们有很多前车之鉴了”众议员拉贾·克里希那穆提说道。这位来自芝加哥郊区的议员为二月发表的《2018年全国青少年吸烟状况调查报告》的结果感到担忧。该报告指出,“美国青少年的电子烟使用出现了惊人的增长”——在短短一年内,使用电子烟的青少年比例就从11.7%跃升至20.8%,也就是说360万的在校青少年在吸电子烟。而这个月,他的担忧再次被加深——初步调查显示,2019年,超过四分之一的高中生在吸电子烟。而疾控中心的此次关于原因未明的电子烟相关致死的报告,无疑又让这一担忧雪上加霜。

而当他14岁的儿子告诉拉贾,在九年级的前三周里,至少有20次别的孩子问他要不要一起吸电子烟时,这一担忧就又融入了个人恩怨。

作为众议院经济与消费者委员会的主席,拉贾比其他忧心忡忡的父亲有更大的优势对这一问题作出回应。在七月的几次听证会上,他已经采集到了一些美国原住民官员以及高中生对于尤尔公司这一最大的电子烟品牌的种种用来赢取消费者的努力的证言。

其中一位证人,九年级学生迦勒·明茨,向委员会表示,在一位尤尔公司的代表与他们学校的学生接触之后,那些已经在吸电子烟的同学“松了一口气,从此吸电子烟轻松无忧”,而没开始吸的同学也越发跃跃欲试,因为“他们现在也认为电子烟只是一个味觉仪器,没有任何有害成分

一位尤尔的管理人员则表示,他们已经在2018年的秋天结束了该宣传项目。并且,他们还说自己已经采取了进一步措施,来避免孩子们接触到电子烟,并强调电子烟对试图戒烟的成年人的好处。

电子烟会危害青少年大脑发育

实际上,有些成年人确实可能得到好处。这些成年人给电子烟加上棉花糖和薄荷的味道,来讨青少年的欢心。而有些成年人开的小电子烟店,如果不卖这些味道可爱的烟,就很可能开不下去了。还有许许多多其他成年人,在这儿试图得到好处。

你应该听明白了。美政府解决青少年电子烟问题的政策还没出台时,一个反对联盟就已经形成了。

在他们蓄势待发的同时,我们一定得记住几个事实。疾控中心也告诉了我们:尼古丁具有“极强的致瘾性,而且会对青少年的大脑发育造成危害电子烟对人体健康造成的长期危害,还远没有被了解。

所以,确实如拉贾所说,我们已经有很多前车之鉴了。如果30年后又有人拿着一个电子烟致死率及意外伤残率的惊天数字f站出来,现在的人们将不能再恬不知耻的说,“我们那时候也不知道”。

 

【作者】Fred Hiatt 【作者简介】华盛顿时报社论专版编辑

【名词解释】

1.类鸦药

又称阿片类止痛药,是从罂粟中提取的生物碱及体内外的衍生物,与中枢神经受体相互作用,能缓解疼痛,产生幸福感。具体包括吗啡、芬太尼等。

图片来源:AP/CDC官网/Bloomberg

编辑/陈鉴轩

翻译/吕若平

排版/巩馨泽

校对/董一

文章来源:电子烟,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.hhdye.com/2226.html

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