电子烟比香烟危害更大?

电子烟比香烟危害更大?一项新的研究发现,在实验室实验中,电子烟中使用的两种人工香料会对肺组织细胞造成损害。这些人工香料作为食物的调味料食用是安全的,但哈佛大学公共卫生学院的一名研究人员认为,当它们被加热并以蒸汽的形式吸入时可能就不安全了。

在最近发表的一项实验中,约瑟夫·艾伦和他的同事们将培养的肺上皮细胞(一种排列在肺表面的细胞)暴露在二乙酰和2,3-戊二酮两种化学物质的蒸汽中24小时。

“像双乙酰这样的化学物质实际上非常多样化,它可以用来制造黄油的味道,也可以用来制造香蕉和草莓的味道,肉豆蔻的味道,全麦饼干的味道,还有很多酒精的味道。”在之前的一项研究中,研究小组测试的电子烟中有90%含有这两种化学物质。

一些用于电子烟的香精化学品已被批准用于食品安全,但尚未经过吸入安全测试(Lindsay Fox, CBC)

电子烟比香烟危害更大

研究小组发现,即使是较低的水平——低于工业暴露的建议水平——这种化学物质也会改变肺细胞中的基因表达。特别是这些化学物质似乎干扰了纤毛的生长、产生和功能,纤毛是这些上皮细胞产生的细小的毛发状纤维。纤毛和肺部的粘液一起工作,捕捉和清除进入肺部的污染物。

艾伦说:“香料化学物质导致了我们呼吸道上皮细胞基因表达的显著变化,这些变化与肺部纤毛有关。”“纤毛功能受损与慢性阻塞性肺病和哮喘等肺部疾病有关。”

吸入的化学物质“令人担忧”

艾伦说,我们有充分的理由怀疑这些化学物质。十多年前的研究发现,双乙酰与闭塞性细支气管炎有关。这种罕见而严重的肺部疾病后来被称为“爆米花肺”,因为在微波爆米花加工厂工作的工人中,这种化学物质作为加热蒸汽被吸入的人非常普遍。

艾伦说,这些工厂的工作人员已经意识到吸入这些化学物质的危险。他说,目前还没有针对电子烟使用者的警告。

这不仅关系到他所测试的两种化学物质。这些调味化学品属于美国食品和药物管理局(fda)的GRAS或“公认安全”类。这适用于一系列用作食品添加剂和调味料的物质。但是艾伦认为,这种安全的假设可能只适用于食品或饮料中使用的化学物质。

他认为我们不应该想当然地认为这些调味料在蒸发过程中经过了安全测试。

他说:“调味料工业本身在一份有关调味料制造商工作场所的呼吸健康和安全的报告中,已经确认了他们所说的27种高度优先的化学物质。它回避了使用哪种调味料的问题,它是否经过了吸入安全测试。”

电子烟比香烟危害更大

为孩子们着想

这项新发现尤其令人担忧,因为美国政府最近发布了一项统计数据。美国疾病控制与预防中心(centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称cdc)的数据显示,有20%的高中生表示他们曾使用过电子烟。对于小学生来说,这个数字要低得多,但仍然令人惊讶,有5%。

加拿大卫生部报告说,加拿大的数字较低,但对年轻人使用电子烟表示“关注”。

文章来源:电子烟,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.hhdye.com/2242.html

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