美国食药监局:电子烟可能存在引发癫痫风险

美国食药监局:电子烟可能存在引发癫痫风险

4月3日,美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)在本周发布了一份声明,提醒电子烟可能引发癫痫。

FDA官网发布声明,电子烟或能诱发癫痫
 

美国食药监局:电子烟可能存在引发癫痫风险

该机构表示,自去年6月以来,癫痫发作的报告略有增加,并在2010年至2019年初期间发现了35例使用电子烟后癫痫发作的病例。癫痫发作主要发生在年轻人身上,发作发生在几次吸烟后或使用后一天。

FDA的声明称,癫痫或抽搐是已知的尼古丁中毒的潜在副作用,有报道称,它们与故意或意外吞下含有尼古丁的电子液体有关。FDA怀疑,35起癫痫案例其实低估了实际情况,因为这些报告都是人们自愿提交的。

不过,该机构表示,目前还不能确定是电子烟导致了这些癫痫发作。有的人第一次吸电子烟就发生癫痫,有的人则是在使用一段时间后,还有的人之前出现过癫痫,也有人摄入了大麻或安非他命等其他物质。因此,这些案件需要进行调查,以确定两者之间是否真的存在关联。由于一些电子烟含有高浓度的尼古丁,FDA还将研究尼古丁使用的任何额外后果。

上个月,FDA发布了正式的计划,限制调味电子烟的销售,其中包括限制在商店或门户网站上销售除烟草、薄荷和薄荷醇以外的其他口味的电子烟。

除了上瘾、引发癫痫等疾病之外,电子烟的二手烟最近也引发了大家的关注。世卫组织发文称,电子烟并非是商家所说的“水蒸气”,而是一种新的空气污染源。使用电子烟产生的气溶胶通常含有毒物质和污染物,可以导致人体发生一系列的病变。

电子烟加热溶液产生的二手气溶胶其中包括颗粒物质、1,2-丙二醇、某些挥发性有机化合物、某些重金属和尼古丁。其产生的某些金属含量,比如镍和铬,甚至比传统卷烟产生的二手烟的含量还要高。

对比无烟的清新空气,电子烟中的二手气溶胶可以造成PM1.0值高出14~40倍,PM2.5值高出6~86倍不等。尼古丁含量高出10~115倍。乙醛含量高出2~8倍,甲醛含量高出20%。

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