电子烟管控分歧大:“拯救者”还是“诱惑者”

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烟神在线消息:据悉,来自全球31个国家的129名医生、肿瘤学家近日联名致信世界卫生组织(WHO),希望其不要动摇严格管理电子烟的决心。写信者称,制定严格规范可以预防青少年吸烟,保护普通民众免受二手烟侵害以及进一步规范市场。信中,专家们要求所有电子烟生产商拿出数据证明电子烟是安全的,并且能帮助人们戒烟,同时还要公布电子烟中所含有的液体成分。

在这之前,一组为数53人的国际知名科学家呼吁卫生组织不要把电子烟列为烟草类产品。他们在致世卫组织总干事陈冯富珍的公开信函中说,不含焦油的电子烟能使烟民免受多数癌症、心脏病和肺病之害,电子烟可能是21世纪具创意的卫生产品之一,或许能拯救数亿人的性命。

作为电子烟的消费大国,美国近年来对电子烟的正负作用也充满了激烈的争议。美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)最近表示将为电子烟以及其他类电子烟的尼古丁产品设定强制产品标准,以进一步保护公众健康。

电子烟由电池驱动,使用者能够吸入带有尼古丁的蒸汽。和普通卷烟不同的是,电子烟不会产生一氧化碳。电子烟产业在美国增速强劲。富国银行分析师赫尔佐格认为,随着技术的不断完善,电子烟市场将在未来10年内超过真正的卷烟。

电子烟在缺乏联邦层面法律监管的前提下,在美国市场上已拥有数10亿美元的销售额,但依旧充满争议。支持者称比起普通卷烟,电子烟的毒性更小,并且一些研究显示电子烟对戒烟也有正面作用。但反对者坚称电子烟同样能使人上瘾,在这点上电子烟和普通卷烟别无二致。

具体而言,围绕电子烟产生的问题主要有:从长期看,电子烟对于使用者及使用者周围的人有什么影响?电子烟是帮助烟民戒烟,还是起到相反作用?青少年在使用电子烟后,是否更容易成为使用普通卷烟的烟民?

美国部分地方政府已通过法律规范电子烟的销售和使用,但这些法律往往点到为止,并不详尽。FDA拥有规范电子卷烟的法律权威,曾禁止向未成年人销售电子烟,然而,FDA并未采取措施限制针对未成年人的电子烟广告。

虽然FDA声称电子烟中的丙二醇和丙三醇(甘油)作为食品添加剂“总体来看是安全的”,但吸入这些成分后的长期效果仍不得而知。FDA的烟草产品中心已开始收集有关电子烟副作用的报告,其中包含的症状有眼部刺激、头痛、咳嗽等。

电子烟的支持者说,电子烟的关键成分——尼古丁,对于除了孕妇以外的大多数人来说,含量轻微且在临床上被广为接受。况且,尼古丁口香糖和尼古丁贴片多年来也一直被用作戒烟工具。生理学家大卫·艾布拉姆斯对《洛杉矶时报》记者说:“问题的关键不在于有没有尼古丁,而是尼古丁在卷烟里燃烧和传递的方式。在合理的剂量下抽质量过关的电子卷烟,尼古丁会让你的心跳每分钟增多两到三次,但真的没多少副作用。”

作为反对者,美国公共卫生署代理署长鲁西尼亚克则担心,电子烟可能会使美国在公共卫生方面的进展毁于一旦。2012年的统计数据显示,美国成人中吸烟者的比例为18%,但如果不开展新的宣传戒烟的运动,美国政府将无法实现在2020年之前把这一比例降低到12%的目标。在这其中,电子烟难辞其咎。有研究显示,某些烟民在工作场所、饭馆和其他禁烟场所使用电子烟,但离开了这些场所,他们还是会使用普通卷烟。因此,电子烟似乎根本没起到某些人声称的“戒烟”作用。

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