吸电子烟对人有害吗?

低调地始于中国,电子烟一开始由小型独立公司引进到西方,但是随着普及程度的飙升,大型企业纷纷跟随潮流也参与到电子烟的生产销售中来。吸电子烟对人有害吗?

当电子烟变得受大众欢迎,我们看到的是烟草工业的大型企业,跨国企业也进入市场,买下这些电子烟制造厂商。

大型烟草企业是电子烟制造行业的主要参与者。大卫·奥莱利是研究与开发部门的主管。任职于其中一家大型烟草企业,我们专门请他就我们关心的问题进行解答。

吸电子烟对人有害吗

作为植物,烟草真的漂亮。难以想象的是,这种植物加工后导致了大量的破坏和死亡。所以,这种植物有什么成分?怎么会对人体造成那么严重的破坏?

大卫说:植物用于吸食都有毒,比如对我们常见的生菜进行干燥,把它卷成杆状,点着再吸入,你吸入的有毒物质和烟叶基本一样。

你是说这种植物本身并没有特殊的害处?有毒物质主要在燃烧过程中产生,对吗?

大卫:没错,所以如果把物质点燃,就会产生约100种有毒物质。这100种物质中,有些已确认对人体有害,有些可能有害。所以,我们的目标是彻底摆脱燃烧的过程,来让消费者获取他们想要的尼古丁。加上他们喜欢的口味,通过这种方式让他们能够接受。而电子烟就是最好的实现方法。因为电子烟没有燃烧过程,而是直接加热。

2013年,英美烟草集团开始售卖电子烟,如今,他们生产一系列产品,包括电子烟液。

电子烟液体里什么东西让我渴望吸一口呢?

大卫:电子烟液成分十分简单,包括尼古丁、水、香料。还有两种简单的化合物:丙二醇和丙三醇(甘油)。在人们吸烟的时候,他们能使蒸汽增稠,产生肉眼可见的烟云。

传统香烟和电子烟,吸入的物质有什么不同吗?

这是对可然的传统香烟产生的有毒物质的扫描图,图表上显示大约有6000种化合物。

传统香烟产生的6000多种化合物

图上每一个峰值都代表一种化合物,其中大概一百种物质已知有害,或者可能对人有害。

答:用同样的方法扫描电子烟,可以看到图谱中少了很多峰。大部分传统香烟中的有毒物质都没有了。

吸电子烟对人有害吗

电子烟扫描化合物

电子烟中的有害物质的含量在一个较低水平。低到我们不必担忧。没有人敢说电子烟绝对安全。但最新的证据表明它们比传统香烟大概安全百分之九十五。这个结果也是支持证据之一。电子烟中的化学成分与传统香烟完全不同。

实验分析表明,电子烟中的化合物与传统烟中的物质大相径庭,但人们真正关心的是,电子烟对人的影响。这也是大卫和他的团队想要研究的。

下图显示了健康人体内的变化(细菌恢复延时摄影)。

健康人小伤口愈合细胞图

通过显微镜看到,这些人体内血管上的细胞,中间的间隙是由轻微的撕裂伤导致。这种撕裂伤是一种日常生活中很常见的微小损伤。对于健康人来说,这些小伤口能很容易地愈合。我们看见在延时摄影中,细胞慢慢移动回来填补了间隙。大卫:这是健康的正常的人体。

为了研究吸烟对人体的影响,大卫的团队开展了一个名为划伤测试的项目。他在正常血管细胞中划出一道空隙,来模拟日常生活中产检的撕裂。然后将烟草烟雾溶解于细胞培养液中,并观察细胞的变化。

烟草烟雾溶液对细胞的破坏

大卫:你能看见中间的伤口完全不同,看起来很糟糕不是吗?这里有很多黑点,这些黑点就是死亡或者将死的细胞。细胞不能填补空隙。细胞的运动混乱,缺乏明确的方向。伤口经过了二十一个小时也没有愈合。没错,这个结果十分令人震惊,不是吗?

烟草烟雾破坏了细胞的行为。我们能看见伤口无法愈合。

大卫:我现在正在一家烟草公司看着影像资料听着员工告诉我烟草的危害。这一切让我觉得颇有些讽刺意味。我之前可没想象过这个画面。

现在更重要的问题是,吸电子烟会导致什么?实验团队用电子烟雾重复了划伤实验。

大卫:你能看见接触了电子烟雾的细胞仍能正常修复。十二三小时之后伤口愈合的差不多了。大概二十一小时之后,伤口就会完全愈合。这是个有力证明,证明了电子烟雾不会损伤血管细胞在日常生活中正常受损后的修复能力。

上述实验十分具有说服力。

再来看看以下三组伤口血管细胞恢复延时摄影对比画面。

最上方的血管细胞仅仅接触了新鲜空气;中间的解除了电子烟雾。底部的接触了传统香烟烟雾。差别非常明显。

大卫:所以这个实验显示了接触过新鲜空气细胞的修复能力和接触过电子烟雾的细胞表现相似。实际上几乎无法区分其区别。但传统香烟烟雾阻碍了血管细胞的修复能力。

仅仅这个实验是无法证明电子烟雾一定无害,但它的确表明电子烟并不象香烟那样损害人的修复能力。所以,我怎么能知道你是否有其他的实验研究证明电子烟有害?而你只是没有把实验结果公开呢?

大卫:所有我们在英美烟草公司所作的研究都要发表在国际性的同行评议期刊上,无论实验结果如何,这是一项原则。并且我们所有的研究机构都遵循统一的研究管理规范。

当某个烟草公司的员工告诉你,吸电子烟更健康时,这的确感觉到很奇怪。但电子烟的真正的意义在于帮助人们戒烟。

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