电子烟经常以安全和无烟作为广告宣传(FDA)



电子烟经常以安全和无烟作为广告宣传,某些研究认为吸入电子烟气雾的毒性低于普通烟草的二手烟,但很少有研究关注电子烟气雾对未使用者的作用,而这些气雾包含有尼古丁、金属颗粒、硅酸盐颗粒以及其它物质。

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)一项分析显示,几乎 1/3 电子烟的不良事件报告与二手暴露有关。而这一数字正逐渐增多,与电子烟相关的不良事件也符合呼吸道刺激、尼古丁暴露及可能的尼古丁毒性。

FDA 的卫生官员 Beth Durmowicz 在近日的 2014 年美国儿科学会全国会展上表示:“我们不仅需要进一步弄清楚电子烟对使用者的影响,还要了解它对未使用者的影响”。

该研究建议,与传统烟草一样,父母应该让孩子远离电子烟,避免在青少年附近使用或充装。Durmowicz 表示,电子烟部分不良事件与尼古丁毒性一致”。

在 2012 年 1 月 1 日至 2014 年 6 月 30 日间提交给 FDA 的 90 项不良事件报告中,有 33 项与未使用者相关(详见下图)。

不良事件

数量

呼吸道刺激、眼部刺激、咽喉痛、头痛、恶心和头晕

21

爆炸引发的烧伤或创伤

8

涉及儿童的事件(窒息死亡、燃烧、呼吸困难、刺耳的声音)

4

越来越多的不良事件很有可能反映了电子烟越来越受欢迎,而对非使用者影响的增加也引起了有关机构的注意。正如 Durmowicz 所说的:“我们看到了越来越多的消极暴露报告,正是这引起了我们的关注”。

不良事件报告

年份

使用者的报告

未使用者的报告(占总数百分比)

2012

16

1(6%)

2013

41

10(24%)

2014(1-6月)

51

22(43%)

总数

108

33(31%)

俄亥俄州哥伦布全国儿童医院的主治医师 Judith Groner 在参会上表示:“这些仅仅是目前新兴的数据,这是一个未知的领域,但对政策有重大的影响”。和传统烟草一样,最终公共场所很有可能禁止使用电子烟。

Groner 指出,人们大都认为电子烟是安全的,但我们对此真的了解吗?目前研究者观察到的所有投诉均与呼吸道影响有关,下一步需要更多的描述性研究,但若到那时才引起重视或许为时已晚。

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