电子烟和香烟哪个危害大?知乎中国科学院遗传学博士回答

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大?这个问题的答案还是非常的确定的,从危害的角度而言,电子烟明显要小于普通烟,这也是电子烟最早作为普通烟替代物用来治疗烟瘾的一个重要原因,所谓两害相权取其轻嘛。那么,一定会有知友问个为什么,为什么电子烟比普通烟要危害少呢?

电子烟和普通烟在危害方面,主要有两大区别,分别是烟草成分的区别和雾化的区别,今天就来细说一下。

一、成分角度,电子烟危害远小于普通烟。

焦油

普通烟危害最大的是焦油,焦油是指吸烟过程中烟嘴内留存的一层棕色油腻物质,俗称烟油。吸烟过程中非常直观的一种变化,就是过滤嘴随着抽吸颜色逐渐加深,而夹着烟的手指也会被熏的变色,当然吸烟后牙齿也会随之被染上一层深色,而其根源就在于焦油。
 

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大

焦油可不只是变色这么简单,事实上,它是有机物在缺氧条件下不完全燃烧的产物,因此包含非常多的有物质,其中不少都是致癌物,比如苯并芘、镉、砷、β荼、胺、亚硝胺等多种致癌物质和苯酚类、富马酸等促癌物质,正因为如此,普通烟草成为了世界卫生组织旗下国际癌症研究机构列出的一类致癌物,也就是明确致癌。除此以外,烟焦油还会导致加速人体血管老化,导致血管逐步硬化丧失弹性导致心血管疾病,其他诸多疾病也往往是因为焦油导致的,因此很多疾病医生的第一建议就是戒烟。

那么焦油是否无解呢?答案基本上是肯定的,焦油无解。曾经有人凭借降焦成为了烟草院士,遭到了大量的反对,包括数百位院士联名给国家写信要求取消其资格。中国控烟办主任杨功焕表示卷烟“减害降焦”法是高效杀人的骗局。国内外多项研究早已表明“低焦油”并非“低危害”,香烟“降焦减害”本身就是伪命题,此基础上的任何“成果”都站不住脚。而且,低焦油的后果是引起用户更大规模的吸烟,最后危害加剧。

那么电子烟有焦油吗?答案是否定的,电子烟的最大优势之一就是不包含焦油,而是采取了安全的VG(甘油)和PG(丙二醇)来作为替代,这二者都是常见的有机溶剂,大家打开护肤品都能看到这二者成分,属于非常安全的成分,至少目前并没有足够的证据认为其有害。

尼古丁

尼古丁是烟草中的另一个重要成分,也是众所周知的烟草成分,尼古丁俗称烟碱,其本身的生理危害并不像烟焦油那样严重,但是尼古丁有一个很麻烦的问题,那就是成瘾性。尼古丁会导致人上瘾,这也是为什么吸烟的人戒烟困难。在这一点上,无论是电子烟还是普通烟都有尼古丁。不过,二者还是有区别,因为普通烟草的尼古丁本身是包含在烟草里,是烟草成长分泌的产物,所以降低尼古丁在普通烟草里是个非常困难的课题(因为烟草是物理加工过程,所以尼古丁并不会减少,如果采取化学办法减少尼古丁,必然导致烟草风味发生变化,影响烟草的销量)。反观电子烟,由于尼古丁是直接添加的,所以可以控制尼古丁的比例,甚至可以做到0尼古丁。

当然有人会想到今年315的时候央视还提到过电子烟甲醛超标嘛,其实我当时就写过反对回答,因为央视的说法是拿电子烟和普通空气比,如果电子烟和烟草比呢?答案依然是普通烟更大,事实上,普通烟燃烧本身就会产生高浓度甲醛,所以颇有一种豺狼当道安问狐狸的意味。
 

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大

而且,甲醛类物质的出现主要是由于不合格的烟油。当然,目前电子烟国家规范尚未出台,所以购买时只能选择有较多电子烟企业认可的品牌。

除了上述化学成分区别,普通烟和电子烟还有一个重要区别就是雾化。

燃烧vs雾化

我们知道普通烟是需要燃烧才可以抽吸的,而燃烧这个过程,也是烟草有害物质大量生成的过程。众所周知,燃烧是一个化学反应过程,普通的烟草,经过燃烧之后,就会产生大量的物质。由于烟草的燃烧并不均匀,不同位置温度差异极大,相当于化学反应条件也多样化了,因此更是诞生了非常多的有害物质,这也是烟草危害的一个最主要因素。

而电子烟则不同,电子烟并不燃烧,而是简单的加热雾化,一般情况下,电子烟一般雾化温度控制在250-350℃,部分电子烟甚至可以实现220-250℃的低温雾化,这个温度相对于普通烟草的700-800℃要低的多,而这会极大的减轻电子烟的危害,降低有害物质生成,这也是电子烟危害低的另一个重要原因。
 

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大

除此以外,颗粒物的生成也是一个重要的因素。近些年来雾霾的影响使得我们对环保和健康更加关注,大家也明白了原来有一种物质叫可悬浮颗粒,它们的危害非常的大,比如最典型的就是PM2.5,也就是直径在2.5μm附近的颗粒,会进入人体产生严重危害如导致心血管疾病等。传统烟草的燃烧会产生大量的固体悬浮颗粒物,下图是烟草燃烧对室内颗粒物的污染贡献,我们可以看到,在烟草吸食后,产生了大量的颗粒物,从PM1.0-PM10都发生了10倍多的上升,这些固体颗粒被吸进人体,粘附在喉咙、气管、肺部等地方沉积,是无法分解的,长年累月下来,就会产生喉癌、气管癌、肺癌等不可挽回疾病。
 

反观电子烟呢?电子烟的雾化本身也可以产生颗粒,但是这个颗粒是液态颗粒,进入人体会被吸收或排除,比如临床上常用地雾化给药就是这个原理,雾化后的药物会被人体吸收。不仅如此,现代雾化技术的提升,使得雾化水平越来越高,比如麦克韦尔的FEELM都可以做到1μm的雾化,也就意味着其雾化出来的烟气是不包含PM1-PM10范围内的颗粒物,自然也不会对个体带来固体颗粒物的损伤了。

当然了,雾化材料本身也是影响电子烟有害物质排放以及电子烟消费体验感的重要因素,下图展示了电子烟雾化技术的发展历程,从纤维绳、有机棉、不锈钢网到如今的多孔陶瓷发热等不同的发展阶段。
 

而这其中的改进,不仅是对电子烟体验感本身的提升(图左),更是对电子烟有害物质释放的减少(图右),比如多孔陶瓷的热传导效率更高,从而可以减少雾化时间。
 

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大

事情到了这里,从直观的角度,我们已经看出,电子烟比普通烟危害要少多了,表现在:

1,普通烟有危害巨大的烟焦油,电子烟没有烟焦油

2,普通烟的尼古丁含量固定,很难根除,电子烟的尼古丁是添加成分,可以调节不同浓度

3,普通烟燃烧会产生大量无法分解的固体颗粒物如PM2.5等附着于喉咙、气管、肺部等部位,不断积累对人体产生伤害。,而电子烟技术产生的是可以分解的液态颗粒物被人体吸收或排出,基本上不产生颗粒物伤害。

因为如此,所以电子烟的出现,是作为普通烟的替代物,这其中的好处就是一方面,对于无法戒烟的群体,可减少普通烟中焦油等有害物质带来的健康损伤;另一发面,电子烟的成分可控,比如可以不断降低尼古丁含量,从而减轻患者对尼古丁的依赖,从而实现戒烟。所以会被用作戒烟使用。

电子烟和香烟哪个危害大?当然,话说回来,无论是普通烟草还是电子烟,都不是善茬,只是两害相权取其轻而已。不吸烟是最好的,同时,坚决制止青少年吸烟行为,哪怕是电子烟也不行。

本文转载于知乎 网友李雷的回答,著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。

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