Science子刊最新研究电子烟的危害

中国目前15岁及以上人群使用电子烟的人数约为1000万,主要以15-24岁的年轻人使用率最高。电子烟中除具有成瘾性的尼古丁外,其释放的气溶胶中也含有许多已知有害的致癌物质,烟液里加入的添加剂、调味剂,在加热后也会产生有害产物。然而,电子烟被消费者和整个行业称为戒烟辅助工具,认为其比香烟更安全。

人体的口腔中存在一个开放的微生物生态系统,其中包含700多种细菌。口腔的健康与稳定的微生物生态系统密切相关,这些菌群的改变会引发导致其他疾病的轻度炎症性宿主反应。先前有研究表明,吸烟会影响口腔微生物组成,增加牙周炎风险。尽管电子烟对呼吸系统的影响已经日渐得到,但其对口腔影响的研究仍不够深入。

近日,来自俄亥俄州立大学的研究人员对123名志愿者展开了电子烟对牙龈微生物组影响的研究,发现使用电子烟会导致口腔中病原体过量表达,毒力增加,促进口腔炎症的发生,使正常人的口腔环境与重度牙周炎患者相当。相关研究成果于当地时间5月27日发表在《Science Advances》上。

 

研究人员从20个电子烟使用者的前牙收集龈下菌斑样本,对样本微生物进行全基因组测序,创建了电子烟使用者的龈下微生物组细菌基因数据库。然后对其与25名吸烟者和25名从未吸烟者的口腔微生物组成进行差异研究,发现与吸烟者和对照组相比,电子烟使用者的微生物基因组表现出与碳水化合物代谢及蛋白质和氨基酸代谢相关基因的富集,且其含更多促炎细胞因子与编码应激反应,环境反应调节和重金属运输相关的基因。这表明电子烟气溶胶会显著影响口腔微生物的稳态及其群体。
 

电子烟使用者龈下微生物群的系统发育、功能和免疫特性
 

电子烟使用者、吸烟者和非吸烟者的微生物群落结构和功能的差异

由于电子烟使用者的基因组比对照组显示出更大的毒力特征,因此研究人员量化了受试人群体内与炎症反应相关的八种细胞因子水平。与从不吸烟者相比,电子烟及香烟使用者的促炎细胞因子的水平显著升高,而抗炎性细胞因子的水平较低。这表明电子香烟和常规香烟一样具有促进更大的炎症的风险。
 

电子烟影响的微生物所造成的炎症负担

然后研究人员对25名同时使用常规香烟和电子烟的和25名从常规香烟转换为电子烟人群的微生物组进行差异分析,发现,双重使用者和以前吸烟者的微生物组与从未吸烟者和吸烟者相比,与电子烟使用者的相似性显著更高。这表明,长期使用普通烟草人群的口腔细菌的危害,在使用电子烟三个月后也会增加。

除此之外,研究人员使用转录组测序,共聚焦及电子显微镜在体外证明了电子烟内含物例如富含碳的乙二醇/甘油媒介物,是在暴露后24小时内改变生物膜结构的重要催化剂,其会对生物膜结构具有下游影响。

简而言之,这一研究表明电子烟也会增加对口腔的危害以及炎症反应的发生。无论是普通香烟还是电子烟,人人都应该时刻提醒自己,任何替代的吸烟都有害健康,及早戒烟才最为有效。

End

参考资料:

[1] Adverse effects of electronic cigarettes on the disease-naive oral microbiome

[2] 我国15岁及以上使用电子烟的人数约1000万。

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