合成尼古丁是电子烟的解药吗?

前几天和业内老朋友张梓恒张总相聚聊天,才知道他已加盟波顿集团。国内电子烟大烟雾鼎盛时期,几个知名的欧美品牌如锋派红冰、傲髅、百万红河等背后都有他的身影,可谓是电子烟界的老人了,目前担任波顿旗下的中香香料(深圳)有限公司COO。张总向我介绍了波顿关于电子烟的部分布局和进展,其中中香烟油关于合成尼古丁的项目引起了我的好奇。
 

波顿集团中香香料COO-张梓恒

同业对波顿集团大都有所耳闻,毕竟人家是国内香精香料行业香港首家上市企业,现已成为涵盖香精香料产业群、生物工程、电子消费品、物业管理四大核心板块的大型现代化企业集团。波顿集团最出名的就是香精香料,现在是全球四大香精香料供应商之一,而且为烟草行业提供香精香料30余年,中国十八大卷烟企业全部是波顿的客户,同时也是电子雾化液国家标准参与制定者之一。
 

而中香香料(深圳)有限公司成立于2007年6月,是波顿集团旗下专门研究和解决电子烟液的供应商。拥有经验丰富的测试和认证专家团队,研发人员占公司人员的1/3以上,其中就包括多名10年以上在烟油、食品和烟草调香经验的专家,可根据客户的特殊需求定制开发。中香的业务早已遍布中国、美国、英国、德国、法国、澳洲、中东等多个国家和地区,只不过是ToB的公司,大众对中香并不太了解。
 

张总说,合成尼古丁正是中香最新的技术研究方向之一。一方面他们想寻求新的增长点和市场,另一方面,随着各国法规监管越来越严格,特别是对于烟草类制品的监管趋于严格,电子烟中使用天然尼古丁越来越受限,而合成尼古丁并不涉及烟草制品,因此暂时没有类似的限制。
 

他说的我挺有感触。电子烟这个名字起得好,也不好。好的是让人联想到香烟,不好的也是让人联想到香烟。

去年,我在文章《电子烟为什么会陷入这种“好像谁都想管,谁都能管,但不知道该归谁管”的尴尬局面?》中提到导致电子烟陷入管理混乱和污名化局面的是电子烟在最开始就犯了一个致命的“错误”——模拟了香烟的使用方式和体验,甚至是名字。虽然电子烟最初是作为传统香烟更健康的替代品而引入的,但是由于消费者对电子烟及其使用不熟悉,因此生产商又必须强调电子烟的功能和体验类似于传统香烟。电子烟不仅这样宣传,同时也通过设计和新技术来使电子烟在物理观感和使用体验上接近香烟,甚至在标签中使用“香烟”一词,将电子烟描述为与香烟非常类似的复制品。特别是电子烟中也含有烟草提取的尼古丁,这直接导致电子烟在公众和专家以及利益相关者的脑子里留下了“电子烟也是烟草制品”,因此需要按照香烟的方式监管的印象。

可实际上,电子烟和香烟的工作原理,烟气成分,以及安全和危害性都不同。电子烟在国外有个更贴切的学术叫法——电子尼古丁输送系统,英文缩写为ENDS。自2006年电子烟进入全球市场后,因其实用性和安全性(相对香烟),普及程度呈指数增长,ENDS这个单词甚至在2014年被选为牛津英语词典的年度词汇。和尼古丁贴片(戒烟贴)以及尼古丁口香糖(戒烟口香糖)一样,是一种相比香烟更为安全可靠获取尼古丁的设备。
 

普遍认为,香烟烟雾的微粒和气相中至少有6500多种已鉴定的化学成分是吸烟有害的元凶。这些化学物质或者存在于烟叶中,或者是烟草的热解和燃烧的副产物。相比而言,没有烟草和燃烧而直接将尼古丁溶液加热雾化产生的气雾剂被许多人认为比香烟烟雾毒性低得多。

基于这样的现状,现在有越来越多的电子烟品牌和厂家,已经在有意识的淡化“烟”的概念,并以电子雾化取而代之。我认同电子烟应该立场明确的划清自己和传统香烟的界限,然而人类对事物的第一印象太深刻,要想消除误解,有很长的路要走。哪怕香烟致癌的元凶是烟气中的焦油、一氧化碳等物质,而非尼古丁,但因为电子烟中的尼古丁是从烟草中提取的,在很多人的脑子里,电子烟就和香烟一样。

因此,如果尼古丁不再从烟草中提取,而是人工合成的,电子烟是否可以彻底和烟草制品划清关系?目前来看,不同国家和地区大都对香烟和使用合成尼古丁的产品区别定义和管理。
 


 

欧盟:人工合成的尼古丁是传统尼古丁的人造复制品,主要存在于烟草、尼古丁贴片、尼古丁口香糖和大多数电子烟液中。科学家们在实验室中生产出这种尼古丁分子,不需要使用烟草,从而从技术上使用合成尼古丁生产的电子液体摆脱了 TPD 制定的规则和条例。

韩国:现行《香烟事业法》规定,以烟叶或烟叶一部分作为原料加工生产,可吮吸或吸入蒸汽、可咀嚼或闻味的产品,均被认定为香烟产品。而含有从烟草根茎部分提取或合成尼古丁成分的产品则不属于香烟。因此,许多雾化型电子烟及加热型电子烟通过规避以烟叶为原料,避免归类入香烟。

澳大利亚:从7月1日开始,澳大利亚已经禁止尼古丁和尼古丁盐进口,但不通过烟叶提取的合成产品可以绕过监管来解决这个问题。

美国:9月9日PMTA大限将至,参考其他国家的相关条例,合成尼古丁制品将有可能不纳入烟草制品管理和税收范围。但需要强调的是,在包括怀俄明州等部分州签署的法案中,已经将“电子烟”定义为“可用于输送雾化或汽化尼古丁或合成尼古丁的任何设备。” 美国作为全球最大的电子烟消费市场,法案正式颁布之前,一切都还是未知数。

于是,少数嗅觉敏锐又有实力的厂商开始加入到合成尼古丁研发的领域,波顿中香便是其一。
 

波顿集团是国内领先的香精香料和大健康产业研究生产基地,中香依靠波顿的行业资质和近30年的调味经验积累,早知合成尼古丁对于行业的重要意义,于是在2018年底开始投身合成尼古丁领域的研究,并于2019年成功研制出了自己的合成尼古丁。

波顿中香不是第一个合成尼古丁的人。虽然合成尼古丁是电子烟行业的新方向,但100多年前就有人干过。早在1904年,A. Pictet和Crepieux第一次成功利用化学合成的方式得到尼古丁。当时人工合成尼古丁主要用于物质研究和医疗领域,用于治疗帕金森、阿尔茨海默、注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)或癫痫等脑部疾病。

而将合成尼古丁首次应用于电子烟行业则是2016年。美国电子烟油制造商Lost Art推出了合成尼古丁的全口味系列烟油。然而,他们花了很多时间和精力在营销这个新尼古丁产品,却但没有效果。主要原因是同期新的尼古丁盐正在迅猛发展,而彼时技术还不完备的合成尼古丁因为较长的生产周期和较高的成本暂时被掩盖了光芒。
 

虽然暂时被时间遗忘,但从长远来看,合成尼古丁的诞生仍然是电子烟行业的一次巨大进步。从技术角度来说,天然提取的尼古丁含有少量杂质,比如天然烟草中或多或少含有亚硝胺(致癌物),和一些植物颗粒。这些杂质会产生令人不快的味道和刺鼻的气味,从而影响使用体验。虽然合成尼古丁也并不是绝对的“纯净”,但剔除了传统烟草提取尼古丁所含有的诸多杂质,在一定程度上降低了对健康的危害性。不过,天然提取和人工合成的尼古丁谁优谁劣不能单纯的从尼古丁判断,而应该综合评估生产商的生产资质,研发实力和设备水平。
 

张总告诉我,中香首批正式发布的合成尼古丁叫NGN尼古丁(New Generation Nicotine),纯度能达到99.5%,此外还有不少优势:

1.安全减害。

生产研发经过严格的质量程序,并且通过了CNAS标准实验室的检测认证。

2.口感顺滑,刺激小。

NGN尼古丁刺激性要明显低于天然尼古丁,不辣嗓子,烟雾口感更细腻醇厚,口柔和舒适,过肺顺滑。

3.波顿自供,物美价廉

不同于国内绝大多数厂商需外部采购合成尼古丁配制烟油,中香NGN烟油基于波顿体系,省去了中间环节,有价格优势。

4.尼古丁/丁盐可根据客户需求定制

由于自身具备合成生产技术,中香NGN可根据客户需求自由定制。
 

看得出,中香在实验自己的烟油战略。

不管结果怎样,我一向对新技术抱有强烈的好奇心和非分的好感,对执着于技术研发的企业带有深深的敬意。我相信推动人类认识世界,探索真理的正是这些具有创新精神的人。

尼古丁因为与烟草密不可分的关系和成瘾性,一直被大众误解。自1960年以来,尼古丁受到媒体的负面报道从未间断,这让很多人认为,尼古丁就是所有吸烟带来的负面影响的元凶,直到最近牵连至电子烟。如果合成尼古丁能够帮助区分电子烟和传统烟草,消除大众对电子烟的误解,改善公共健康,那将是一件十分了不起的事情。就张总说的:

虽然政策的变化不是我们能左右的,但有几件事可以做:优化合成尼古丁技术,保证生产,降低成本。无论政策如何,如果合成尼古丁能普及,这将是革命性的一步,我能看到它背后的潜力。

后记:

特别感谢波顿中香香料首席调香师黄宏海给予的技术支持 !
 

中香首席调香师-黄宏海

尼古丁合成对于我来说是个全新的领域,为了搞清楚合成尼古丁究竟怎么回事,避免说错话误导大众,我遍历了知网文献。不知是合成尼古丁的研究太少,还是不方便公开,总之查到的相关资料实在太少,一共只有3篇,有很多专业问题仍然没有答案。
 

好在我联系上了中香技术负责人黄宏海,他有6年多的电子烟调香经验。于是一口气提了十几个问题,黄工到午夜还在帮我解答,非常感动,非常感谢!
 

做技术的人严谨,不爱吹牛。黄工不仅指出了文章中夸大和不实之处,还向我科普了很多技术上的专业问题。比如尼古丁其实有两种结构,分为左旋和右旋,像左右手一样。左旋尼古丁才有精神活性,用了上瘾,也能解瘾。而右旋尼古丁就没有这个功效。天然尼古丁中大部分为左旋尼古丁,合成尼古丁中左旋和右旋比例为1:1,通过进一步提取分离,才能得到左旋尼古丁。这导致合成的左旋尼古丁虽然比天然提取的更纯净,解瘾效果更好,但成本也更高。看来,合成尼古丁也并非没有缺点。
 

不过,科学总是前行的,合成尼古丁的研究还处于初级阶段,随着时间的推移,技术的进步,合成尼古丁的成本会越来越低。

我相信科学的力量和人类的智慧。

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