电子烟的危害究竟有哪些?

电子烟的危害究竟有哪些?关于电子烟的安全性和毒害方面的论调,“主流媒体”总是会每隔一段时间就放出“重磅炸弹”,我们以百度搜索为例,关于电子烟的信息可以搜索到:电子烟乙醛超标、烟油掺加荧光剂、丁二酮会引发爆米花肺、尼古丁有害论、以及国内常见的丙二醇导致严重后果等信息。
 
关于这些信息的真实性无从考证,但很显然有断章取义、夸大或缺乏相关的经对比,这种“半真半假”的信息缺乏权威性和公正性,无疑会误导即将踏入vape(电子烟)大门的人。
 
首先我要阐明一件事实,电子烟并非无害!电子烟并非无害!电子烟并非无害!(重要的事情说三遍)
 
但是,现有的研究资料表明,电子烟对于人体的危害比吸食香烟要小很多很多(大约仅有香烟5%的危害),这也就意味着目前来看,对于烟民来说,使用电子烟受到的危害会小于香烟。
 
本文有关乙醛、丁二酮、尼古丁、丙二醇的所有论据皆来自英国公众卫生部(PHE,由英国卫生署赞助的执行机构)的E-cigarettes: an evidence update A report commissioned by Public Health England论文,由英国伦敦国王学院、伦敦皇后玛丽大学、英国诺丁汉大学 (英国酒精和烟草研究中心)共同参与研究,也就是BBC纪录片《电子烟:奇迹或威胁》的证据来源。
 
PS:(本文末尾会放出该论文的下载链接,文中有所有的论点证据链接及各负面消息来原报告链接)
 
—醛类危害论—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
首先是醛类的流言,起因是来自于日本的一篇报道The Japan Times. E-cigs pose much higher cancer risk than thought(电子烟造成癌症的风险高于预期): Japanese study. 28 November201401/05/15];Availablefrom:
 
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/11/28/national/science-health/e- cigarettes-contain-10-times-carcinogens-regular-tobacco-japan-research/#.VOOJbiyMjdU.
 
此文中阐述的是在某一种产品中发现了比香烟高十倍的甲醛,并被国内大肆报道,然而该项试验并没有公布研究资料,但在另几项资料中找到了这项研究结果的可能性。
 
测试时使用了最大的功率进行测试,每次吸气时间为3-4秒,全天测试的情况下,会产生超出5-15次高于香烟烟雾的甲醛含量。
 
对于真正的电子烟用户来说,测试的结果、环境和条件相当于“糊芯”的情况,在正常使用时,大多数人是不会用最高的功率(200W以上)连续吸气4秒钟的,除非你能够接受棉花的糊味或者练就了铁肺。(正常使用时,通常功率在20-80W,每次吸气平均2秒钟左右)
 
还有一篇论文是说电子烟蒸汽会加重肺部感染细菌的情况,实验是通过对于小白鼠的测试来得出的结论。
 
但该实验并没有考虑到小白鼠的应激反应与身体机能下降等情况(无间断受到惊吓,体重严重下降),并且没有与香烟烟雾进行对比。
 
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
实际情况是,使用电子烟的人,呼吸系统疾病获得了明显的改善,不良反应仅为局部刺激与口干(PG成分过敏除外)。
 
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
这是拉链翻译过的香烟和电子烟的对照表,能够发现电子烟产生的有毒化合物含量远低于香烟,并且均没有达到有害标准(不谈剂量的说中毒都是耍流氓)。
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
调查结果摘要(直接摘取自论文内容)
 
最近两个全球级媒体的头条宣称使用电子烟是危险的。这些结论都是基于曲解的研究。只有当烟油被过度加热到电子烟使用者(vapor)难以接受其味道的温度时,才会产生高甲醛。但没有迹象表明vapor暴露于危险水平的醛类。
 
对比于暴露于细菌或病毒的环境,高压力的实验鼠在每天两次,持续两周的超高尼古丁环境下更容易减轻体重或死亡。但这和人类vapor并没有什么联系。
 
正在大张旗鼓的负面媒体宣传活动貌似是对电子烟安全度的改变给出了一个合理的解释(见第8章)。
 
上述研究都没有改变Britton教授在2014年对PHE评估的结论。虽然抽电子烟可能不是100%安全的,但是大多数可能导致与吸烟相关疾病的化学物质在烟油中都是不存在的,并且烟油中的化学物质都只能构成有限的威胁。之前估计抽电子烟95%安全于抽烟[10,146],现在看起来仍然是个合理的估计。
 
—爆米花肺—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
由丁二酮所引发,一度闹得沸沸扬扬的“爆米花肺”,因抽吸电子烟而导致的案例至今为止也就仅此一例,我们是否要将它作为一个让自己恐惧事件呢?
 
并且此次事件仅仅指出了部分电子烟烟油内含有丁二酮,并没有提及香烟中的丁二酮含量,实际上香烟中的丁二酮平均含量是电子烟的750倍!看到这里,你是否仍在担心呢?
 
(论文原文中给予了数据支持)
 
—PG丙二醇有害论—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
丙二醇对呼吸系统有刺激性作用,这项是毋庸置疑的,然而公布的急救方法是:多去呼吸新鲜空气,并且休息即可,在已经感觉到呼吸道不适的情况下仍旧继续使用电子烟的情况明显不太可能。断章取义的事情太多,例如国内知名视频媒体“飞碟说”就曾有这么一个抨击电子烟的科普视频流出。
 
我们需要擦亮自己的眼睛,用理性的态度去思考问题,不要盲目相信,很多资料可以自己去查询与对比,之后再得出结论。
 
当然,国内很多人都是因为对其具有很深的误解,所以在一些报道的引导之下,便不经思考的抨击电子烟,恶意的抹黑,这里面就涉及到下一个问题,尼古丁。
 
—尼古丁有害论—
 
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
在这里不得不先说以下,尼古丁是剧毒物,具有强渗透性,能够透过皮肤与粘膜等方式迅速渗透到人体内,现在国内对于尼古丁中毒死亡的剂量论知大约为50-70mg尼古丁即可致死。
 
然而有证据表明尼古丁中毒死亡的大部分为慢性中毒并且未经及时治疗而死亡,快速摄入大量尼古丁将会引起身体的应激反应(呕吐),排出大部分尼古丁,所以尼古丁的危险性并没有想象的那么高(静脉注射除外)。
 
在这里还有一点需要提到,烟油中的某一样成分抑制了尼古丁的吸收速度,所以吸食电子烟到达尼古丁满足阈值的时间要比香烟更久。
 
“尼古丁致癌”这个论题在国际上还是不确定的,(美国FDA已经承认尼古丁并不致癌),国内民众通常将尼古丁与焦油混为一谈,这就导致了笔者每每谈及烟油中含有尼古丁时,人们会有较大的抗拒反应,认为尼古丁同样是致癌物质,然而尼古丁在茄科植物(番茄、茄子)中是广泛存在的(然而vapor们说的话人们是普遍不相信的,所以需要可靠的证据来源)。
 
研究报告表明,电子烟向空气中释放的尼古丁含量仅为香烟的1/1000,进过检测,吸食二手蒸汽的人体内的尼古丁含量仅与食用番茄相当。并且大家不需要为使用高尼古丁含量(36mg/ml)的烟油担心,在中毒以前你将会明显感受到头晕等不良反应,如果你在这种情况下依然坚持吸食电子烟,那你将面临中毒的风险(没人会这么干吧)。
 
还有一个我们vaper们比较关注的问题,那就是烟油中的实际尼古丁是否与烟油瓶上标注的相符合。
 
研究者对400种烟油的检测结果显示,现在大部分烟油都是符合标注的尼古丁含量的,并没有超标的现象,但是实际尼古丁比标注的还要低的现象较多发生(0mg确实就是不含尼古丁)。
 
再说一个奇怪的现象,国外将16-20mg/ml尼古丁含量的烟油称之为温和程度(国内为0-3mg),这就让人很难接受了啊。还有非常重要的一点,论文内多次提及,因为烟油的味道很容易吸引儿童误服,请将烟油置于孩童无法接触到的地方!请将烟油置于孩童无法接触到的地方!请将烟油置于孩童无法接触到的地方!
 
—荧光剂—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
最初是有人发现蓝莓爆珠烟油使用紫外线灯照射发现了反射的荧光,随之而来的就是大量烟油经过紫外线照射均发现了荧光现象,导致大面积的恐慌。
 
然而这些猜测真的有必要么?荧光剂的作用是为了增白,例如纸张,原生木浆在经过处理之后依旧会偏黄,所以需要添加荧光剂,使其看起来更白。但烟油有必要增白么?添加色素才是真的吧,好,就算厂家添加了荧光剂,但荧光剂真的有你们想象的那么恐怖么?
 
“按照国家标准《GB 151933-2003急性毒性试验》规范性附录D“急性毒性剂量分级表”判定,荧光增白剂为无毒,与日常食用的食盐的急性毒性属同等级别。也就是说,荧光剂像盐一样安全,两者的致死量十分接近,换算成能理解的说法就是,和食盐一样,它一次吃50g以上,才有生命危险。”
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
请问你们会摄入如此高剂量的荧光剂么?且烟油真的会加入荧光剂么?
 
事实上,不仅仅只是烟油,在一些食品、医药品、化妆品上,都会发生这种“荧光现象”,这是一种自然现象,并不代表添加了荧光剂!
 
荧光现象是大自然中广泛存在的,生物、植物、霉菌、矿物等等等都会在紫外线下产生荧光反应,包括大量的合成添加剂,所以不必为了 “荧光”而过度担心。
 
—天涯社区肺大泡论—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
这个问题,相信所有老玩家是不会相信的了,事情的经过是这样的,事主在使用了一段时间电子烟后,发现身体有恙,随即去医院检查,发现肺部有肺大泡,在咨询医生之后,随即将所有责任归咎于电子烟使用上。
 
我们现在看看肺大泡的形成:
 
“肺大泡一般继发于小支气管的炎性病变,如肺炎、肺结核或肺气肿,也有一些病因不清的特发性肺大泡。小支气管发生炎性病变后出现水肿、狭窄,管腔部分阻塞,产生活瓣作用,使空气能进入肺泡而不易排出,致肺泡腔内压力升高;同时炎症使肺组织损坏,肺泡壁及间隔逐渐因泡内压力升高而破裂,肺泡互相融合形成大的含气囊腔。
 
显微镜下可见泡壁为肺泡扁平上皮细胞,有时可仅有纤维膜或纤维结缔组织存在。
 
肺大泡有单发也有多发。继发于肺炎或肺结核者常为单发;继发于肺气肿者常为多发,且大泡常与呈气肿样改变的肺组织界限不清。合并明显肺大泡的肺气肿也称大泡型肺气肿[1]  ”
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
在长期的香烟使用中,可能就已经引起了小支气管炎症,期间使用电子烟,电子烟并没有治疗支气管炎的效果,随即恶化,导致肺大泡出现。这样的情况无论如何无法将责任归咎于电子烟的使用上(当然,劣质烟油的使用还是有一定使之恶化的可能性的)。
 
并且在中国几十万的电子烟使用者中并没有其他的导致肺大泡的例子,这是否应该记为偶然性事件?无论如何,电子烟所导致的身体问题,均比香烟导致的身体问题要少几个数量级。
 
—总结—
 
电子烟的危害究竟有哪些
 
现在电子烟在国内推广难也有一部分这样的原因,民众对其不理解,媒体负面舆论的宣导(甚至将正确性完全忽略),这些都是圈子外的看法,而电子烟圈内部也时常传出各种有毒论,很多玩家未经思考便大肆转发这些没有实际理论支持的流言,在此笔者也恳请各位玩家理性思考,很多流言只需稍加推敲便可破解。
 
国内主流搜索的结果也大多是电子烟的负面消息,而回复评论中则充斥着电子烟有害党、广告商家,这也就导致了玩家一旦反驳,就被列为商家,并被一种完全不经过思考的论调所抨击。这一点严重的影响了电子烟在国内的正常发展,所以希望大家在看到此类信息时,有理有据的进行反驳,不要被带了节奏(注意言辞优雅)。
 
在此,衷心的希望大家能够向周围的人推广电子烟,不要一味的攀比设备的价值(能够以操作技术获得更好的体验效果才是真牛逼),心平气和的交流技术与在生活中的感慨,带领新人一步步踏实的进到这个圈子里来,尽自己的最大力量去改变周边的人对电子烟的看法,这样才能让电子烟良性的发展,为更多吸烟者带来福利,也能让我们在vape的路上不再孤独。
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