中国疾控中心研究指出,电子烟用户中非烟民占比不足4%

12月1日,中国疾控中心在国际权威医学杂志《柳叶刀-公共卫生》(The Lancet Public Health)上发表的最新论文中指出,中国成人电子烟用户主要为传统烟烟民,非烟民极少用电子烟。

中国疾控中心的本次研究共调查近40万成年人,是首次从国家层面报告中国电子烟的使用现况和变化趋势。另外,中国疾控中心主任高福、中国疾控中心慢病中心副主任周脉耕均在论文作者之列。
 

中国疾控中心发布的论文《中国成年人电子烟使用情况:2015-2016年及2018-2019年多次横向调查结果》

论文指出,近年的中国电子烟用户主要为男性和烟民,烟瘾大、想戒烟、了解吸烟危害的人选择电子烟几率更高。有业内人士指出,这不仅表明电子烟的减害作用已得到中国烟民的普遍认可,更是对电子烟“是非烟民第一口烟”等谣言的有力反击。

“中国对电子烟的监管将影响1690万人的身体健康。针对特定人口量身定制政策和公共教育战略,才是公共卫生界和决策者的当务之急。”作者在论文中强调。

中国电子烟用户烟民占比约96.2%  电子烟不是“非烟民第一口烟”

本次研究采用的是中国慢性病和营养监测2015-2016年(189306人)和2018-2019年(184475人)的调查数据,共包含近40万成年人,样本量庞大且具有全国代表性。研究结果表明,2015-2019年,中国成人电子烟使用率从1.3%升至1.6%,男性用户占比约97%。

烟民在电子烟用户中占比极高,且电子烟新增用户中烟民的占比也不断上升。2015-2016年,烟民在中国电子烟用户中占比约93%;2018-2019年,烟民占比约96.2%,即非烟民占比不足4%。作者用加权流行值进行了估算,得出2018-2019年中国成年电子烟用户约有1690万人,其中有1620万都是烟民。

“非烟民极少使用电子烟。”论文作者强调道。该结论也足以证明电子烟并非像某些专家所称的是“非烟民第一口烟”。

据悉,为交叉验证这一结论,研究团队还曾对全国373781名受访者进行过一次抽样调查,结果显示,在37万余名受访者中,非烟民转为电子烟用户的人数仅有83名。

电子烟减害作用受认可  老烟民尤其青睐

电子烟公众号发现,除分析中国电子烟用户的基础比例特征外,本次研究还在性别、年龄、地区(城市或农村)、收入等维度对中国电子烟用户的使用模式进行了详细评估。值得一提的是,这其中有多个研究维度数据显示,电子烟非常受老烟民欢迎。

作者在论文中指出,电子烟对想戒烟的烟民、每天频繁吸烟的烟民,尤其是每天抽烟超过20支的烟民有更高的吸引力。可见,电子烟的减害作用已得到烟民的普遍认可,他们希望通过改用电子烟来获得改变。

据《国际烟草控制政策评估项目(ITC项目)中国调查报告》,2009年-2014年,听说过电子烟的烟民比例已经从29%增加到60%,主动了解电子烟、改用电子烟的烟民持续增加。本次研究数据恰好源自2015-2019年,由此可在一定程度上得出结论:在切实了解电子烟后,越来越多的烟民选择使用电子烟。

此外,与瑞典和美国的调查结果相反,受过高等教育或收入最高的中国烟民更可能用电子烟。

“我们的研究表明,在了解吸烟的危害后,烟民更愿意使用电子烟。”作者补充道,“因此,我们呼吁公共卫生界关注电子烟对健康的短期和长期影响,对不同人群制定差异化的政策和公众教育策略。”

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