相比传统香烟电子烟的危害更甚!

在很多人的观点中,电子烟相比传统香烟对人体的危害要小得多。然而事实却并非如此!
 
近日,美国媒体曝出多地出现健康年轻的患者因呼吸道疾病送往ICU事件,他们的症状包括呼吸短促、胸痛、疲劳、呕吐、腹泻和咳嗽。
 
奇怪的是,医生并没有检查出身体其他部分的感染,但他们却在重症监护室中靠插管和呼吸机维持生命,患者之间唯一的共同点就是都使用过电子烟。
 
电子烟是一种模仿卷烟的电子产品,有着与卷烟一样的外观、烟雾、味道和感觉。它是通过雾化等手段,将尼古丁等变成蒸汽后,让用户吸食的一种产品。世界卫生组织专门对电子烟进行了研究,并得出了明确的结论:电子烟有害公共健康,它更不是戒烟手段,必须加强对其进行管制,杜绝对青少年和非吸烟者产生危害。
 
美国疾病控制和预防中心日前公布数据显示,截止2019年10月1日,美国48个州和美属维尔京群岛已报告与使用电子烟相关的确认和疑似肺病病例1080例,至少有18人死亡。美疾控中心数据显示,这千余名患者中约八成不到35岁,16%的患者不足18岁。在已知吸了何种烟液物质的578名患者中,有大约78%的人吸了添加大麻类物质四氢大麻酚(THC)的烟液。
 
2019年年8月7日,美国食品和药物管理局表示已收到127例在使用电子烟后癫痫发作的病例报告,并正在对电子烟是否为直接原因进行调查。2019年8月23日,美国伊利诺伊州卫生官员表示,一病人疑因吸电子烟导致肺部严重病变死亡。
 
专家表示,电子烟除了含有传统烟草的有害物质尼古丁,还会产生其他多种有害物质。美国卫生部门曾多次提示电子烟可能带来的健康风险,目前正对超过450例与使用电子烟有关的严重肺病病例展开调查。
 
世界卫生组织曾发布消息称,研究表明,电子烟加热溶液产生的二手气溶胶(电子烟的二手烟)是一种新的空气污染源,比传统卷烟更有害。其中包括颗粒物质(包括细颗粒和超细颗粒)、1,2-丙二醇、某些挥发性有机化合物、某些重金属和尼古丁。并非像很多营销宣传的那样,仅仅是“水蒸气”而已。对比无烟的清新空气,二手气溶胶可以造成PM1.0值高出14-40倍,PM2.5值高出6-86倍不等。尼古丁含量高出10-115倍。乙醛含量高出2-8倍,甲醛含量高出20%。
 
其产生的某些金属含量,比如镍和铬,甚至比传统卷烟产生的二手烟的含量还要高。
 
电子烟的危害
 
美国食品和药品管理局曾对市场上 19 款电子烟的成分进行测试,发现电子烟的吸烟装置含有致癌物质和其他对人体有毒的化学品。他们还分析了两种畅销电子烟的烟管成分,发现其中一份样品中含有二甘醇,大剂量摄入会损害肾脏,其他样品中则发现了亚硝胺等致癌物。
 
法国国家消费研究员也指出,研究中调查的部分电子烟产品中尼古丁含量甚高,甚至可以杀死一名婴儿。不仅如此,由于电子烟装置的加温速度过快,在此过程中,还会产生一种叫丙烯醛的剧毒性分子。
 
2013 年,德国联邦健康教育中心主管伊丽莎白·波特博士对电子烟进行研究和分析后发现,电子烟含有大量丙二醇,该物质会对呼吸道造成刺激,进而引发一些急性症状。因此,她认为电子烟对人体健康的危害性可能比传统卷烟还要大。
 
2019年9月美国贝勒医学院的研究人员完成了就电子烟对健康的影响展开的调查,他们发现:长期接触电子烟蒸气会破坏小鼠的肺功能,并降低免疫细胞对病毒感染的反应能力。就像是人类吸烟者患有肺气肿一样。该研究发表在《临床研究杂志》上。
 
研究人员设计了四组小鼠,第一组暴露在电子烟的蒸气中,这些蒸气中的尼古丁含量与电子烟中常见的蒸气溶剂丙二醇和植物甘油的比例相同。第二组接受的电子烟蒸气是只含溶剂但不含尼古丁。第三组实验鼠暴露于卷烟烟草烟雾中,第四组则暴露在洁净的空气中。
 
研究人员发现前三组的小鼠肺部严重受损,并出现了与患有肺气肿相似症状的炎症。此前人们一度认为电子烟中的溶剂是安全无害的,因为这其中不含有尼古丁成分。但是该研究意外发现:仅由丙二醇和植物甘油溶剂制成的电子烟蒸气也会损害肺部。研究人员发现,即便是暴露在不含尼古丁的电子烟的烟雾中,也会导致小鼠肺部脂肪异常堆积,破坏正常的肺部结构和功能。
 
 
实验表明,人们在使用电子烟时,除尼古丁以外,还可能把其他多种未发现的有毒化合物吸入体内。与此同时,电子烟所产生的二手烟,同样可能危及健康。电子烟也会向室内释放可吸入的液体细颗粒物和超细颗粒物、尼古丁和致癌物质。由于电子烟不会产生烟雾,所以就更容易误导消费者,使其产生安全、健康的错误认知。
 
此外,使用电子烟会使肺部暴露在多种化学物质中,包括添加到电子烟液中的化学物质,以及加热/汽化过程中产生的其他化学物质。一项对一些电子烟产品的研究发现,电子烟的蒸汽中含有已知的致癌物和有毒化学物质,以及来自电子烟本身的可能有毒的金属纳米颗粒。研究表明,某些品牌含有高浓度的镍和铬,可能来自于蒸发装置的镍铬加热线圈。类似的电子香烟还可能含有少量的镉,这种有毒金属也存在于香烟烟雾中,会导致呼吸问题和疾病。
 
美国食品和药物管理局(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)今年十月表示,消费者应该远离含有THC(四氢大麻酚)的电子烟。此外,消费者还应避免使用所有非法的电子烟产品,无论其中是否含有尼古丁盐、烟草,还是THC。截至十月,美国疾病控制和预防中心(CDC)已经确认了15个州1000多例与电子烟相关的肺部损害病例,其中有18例丧生。接近3/4的患者是男性,而80%的患者年龄在35岁以下。
 
丧生病例的年龄从20多岁到70多岁不等,女性要多于男性。由于信息非常有限,因此CDC还无法就病因得出明确结论。卫生官员认为,与油基添加剂相关的化学暴露可能是罪魁祸首。
 
调查人员认为,含有THC的产品是最可能的致病源头。FDA指出,大部分病例,即超过78%,涉及含THC的电子烟。只有17%的病例表示,他们使用含尼古丁不含THC的电子烟。
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