专家提醒警惕电子烟二手烟危害

中新网北京9月1日电 (记者 李亚南)烟草危害是当今世界最严重的公共卫生问题之一,数据显示,中国吸烟人群已超过3亿,有约7.4亿不吸烟人群正遭受二手烟的伤害,其中对少年儿童危害尤其值得关注。如今,随着越来越多人投入电子烟的“怀抱”,专家提醒民众,电子烟同样存在二手烟问题。
 
近日,由中国控制吸烟协会主办的“关爱家庭健康,劝导爸爸戒烟”暨第二届“我劝爸爸戒烟”主题征文征画评选揭晓发布会在京举行。活动主办方中国控烟协会副会长廖文科介绍称,烟草对青少年的危害,应该引起家长们的高度重视,尤其是二手烟。而且家长吸烟,对子女会产生负面的示范效应,增加子女未来吸烟的概率。
 
“二手烟的危害绝不亚于一手烟。”著名控烟专家、新探健康研究中心副主任姜垣介绍,有研究证实,烟草燃烧过程中许多化合物在二手烟中的释放率比一手烟还高,如一氧化碳,二手烟是一手烟的5倍,焦油和烟碱是3倍,氨是46倍,亚硝胺(强烈致癌物)是50倍。
 
姜垣指出,父母任何一人吸烟,儿童患上呼吸道疾病、下呼吸道疾病和喘息性疾病的风险均高于父母不吸烟的儿童,且儿童患呼吸系统疾病的次数随吸入二手烟的增加而增加。
 
然而,随着近年来肺癌的高发,烟草虽逐渐受到质疑,却“催生”了一个新产品——电子烟。许多人放弃传统卷烟,投入电子烟的“怀抱”,甚至成为了一种时尚潮流。官方数据显示,中国15岁及以上人群使用电子烟的人数大约有1000万。
 
北京医院呼吸与危重症医学科副主任医师周为指出了电子烟的四大危害:一是大多数电子烟和普通烟草一样含有尼古丁,尼古丁容易导致成瘾,且对胎儿发育有害,对20岁及以下的人的脑部发育带来损害。二是电子烟含有有害气溶胶,这种气溶胶里含有害的化学物质和重金属。三是电子烟的电池可能发生故障,有灼伤手部、脸部等风险。四是一些商家会推出多种口味的电子烟,以吸引低龄烟民,会让更多青少年加入电子烟烟民行列。
 
周为称,电子烟同样存在二手烟问题。如在电子烟产生的二手气溶胶中,包含着多环芳烃、甲醛、烟草特异性亚硝胺等大量有毒有害物质,并非像很多营销宣传的仅仅是“水蒸气”。有研究表明,电子烟二手气溶胶中某些金属(如镍和铬)的含量甚至比卷烟产生的二手烟还高。
 
周为提醒,目前还没有科学证据说明电子烟可以帮助戒烟,世界卫生组织也不建议将电子烟作为辅助戒烟工具。让自己和家人远离烟草伤害最好的方法,就是选择科学的方法戒烟。
 
吸烟容易戒烟难,戒烟真的难到戒不掉吗?北京朝阳医院戒烟门诊负责人梁立荣指出,吸烟成瘾是一种慢性疾病,国际疾病分类(ICD-10)编码为F17.2,称为烟草依赖,常表现为躯体依赖和心理依赖两个方面。躯体依赖表现为,在停止吸烟或减少吸烟量后,吸烟者会产生一系列不易忍受的戒断症状,包括对吸烟的渴求、焦虑、抑郁、不安、唾液腺分泌增加、注意力难以集中、睡眠障碍等,部分戒烟者还会出现体重增加。
 
梁立荣说,“一般情况下,戒断症状可在停止吸烟后数小时内开始出现,在戒烟最初14天内最为强烈,之后逐渐减轻、消失。大多数戒断症状持续约1个月左右,部分患者对吸烟的渴求可能会持续1年以上。”一项对长期戒断率的分析结果显示,未经任何戒烟治疗的尝试戒烟者6个月的长期戒断率仅为3%—5%,最终能够戒断成功的人大多数都要花10—14次的尝试。
 
“烟草成瘾性仅次于海洛因和可卡因,因此凭毅力‘干戒’难以成功。”梁立荣介绍,目前国内外多部权威指南推荐的一线戒烟药物包括尼古丁替代疗法、盐酸安非他酮和伐尼克兰,新一代戒烟药伐尼克兰,因为具有既能减少吸烟需求,又能减轻戒断症状的双重疗效,一般一个疗程(12周)就能见效。
 
据介绍,疫情期间,为方便戒烟人士问诊,国内首家“戒烟云门诊”已正式上线,医生会通过一系列的科学方法,制定个性化戒烟治疗方案。
 
“各年龄段戒烟均有益处,吸烟者与不吸烟者相比,平均寿命约减少10年,60、50、40或30岁时戒烟可分别赢得约3、6、9或10年的预期寿命。”梁立荣提醒公众,尤其是准爸爸们戒烟越早,孕育健康宝宝的几率就越高。(完)
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