为什么淘宝上的进口烟油比官网便宜?

   N年前当国内市场刚出现苗头时候,某宝售的好的烟油主要为进口,当初为一批很小众的玩家。这时的进口烟油价格普遍较高。规格主要为15ml和30ml, 商家少,竞争小,用户少,与此同时进货量也少。这时的烟油价格主要根据欧美的官方价格通过汇率换算标出。有些会加上运费或关税。

 
  当时15ml的品牌烟油美国官网售价一般在15美金,按照汇率折合人民币在90-100元;30ml的官网标价一般在25美金,折合人民币160元左右;此时的商家主要为线上零售商,集中在某宝,直接针对终端用户。找美国品牌商或贸易商小批量拿货,加一些运费或关税,平均溢价在1-2美金。还有些小批量甚至可以直接回国时候背回来。零售商一般会有一倍的利润空间。此时的价格相对比较正常,拿常见规格15ml和30ml来说,价格区间分别在100元,160元左右浮动,有市场敏感度第一批吃螃蟹的小商家尝到了甜头,但因为这一时刻市场过于小众,通常走货量都不大。
 
  这一阶段的进口烟油有以下几个特点:
 
  很多产品为真真切切原装进口货。
 
  很多原装进口货为实实在在的国外品牌(暂不论品牌大小)
 
  市场参与者中零售端线上小商家(某宝)居多,实体零售商以及规模贸易商尚未参与进来。
 
  品牌集中在美国,有少量欧洲,马来西亚,菲律宾的品牌。
 
  大多数品牌商将中国市场看做鸡肋,品牌商本身在中国市场并无品牌规划。
 
  简单列举下基本有:
 
  Halo
 
  五子棋(Five Pawns)
 
  僵尸新娘(Ejuice 2 die 4)
 
  伐木(Cuttwood)
 
  宇宙迷雾(Cosmic Fog)
 
  太空船(Space Jam)
 
  自杀小兔(Suicide Bunny)
 
  十二星座(12 Vapor)
 
  Kilo
 
  疯狂的麦克(Mad Mike’s)
 
  贝克山(Mount Baker Vapor)
 
  眼镜蛇(Ruthless)
 
  小红帽(Trabuco)
 
  Mylk
 
  爆米花(Pop Corn)
 
  胜利者(Triumphant)
 
  奶爸(Milkman)
 
  蕾莎璐(Lazarus)
 
  小绿人或巫毒娃娃(Voodoovape) (马来西亚)
 
  几乎每家小零售商都有侧重点,努力推广甚至营销。彼时小国寡民,努力很快有回报,大家相安无事。彼时的价格一般为良心价。
 
  众所周知的是,国内商家无太大的品牌意识或知识,喜欢吃现成的。
 
  在这些小商家的努力推广下,国内的市场渐渐有了起色,电子烟用户多了起来,市场需求渐渐多了起来。
 
  而此时的行业大背景是:国内电子烟产能过剩,很多工厂订单不饱和,贸易商也愈发艰难。一大批从业人员面临业务转型。
 
  一些敏感的并完成一定资本积累的贸易商看中了这块市场,迅速切入,开始了规模进货的时代,此时为第二个阶段。
 
  规模进货使品牌商对国内市场渐渐重视了起来。当然,在一个封闭的未知市场,他们更希望有金主来扛大货,这一般也更方便品牌的规划。但这也正是题主所说乱价的根源。
 
  举个例子,最初的30ml伐木(Cuttwood)批量进价在8-9美金,平均1美金运费加关税(实际不止,因行业内普遍不会按实际价格海关申报(参见珠海海关抓获国内最大的一批进口烟油走私案) 。也就是说可以在货值上写1-9美金不等,看胆。因此同一货物进价和清关的成本并不相同。)一般增值税17%加关税5%加其他杂税税率接近25%,如果按货值实际申报,那么一瓶30ml的伐木到国内的纯成本在12美金左右,折合人民币75元左右。但即便如此,也比零售商小批量拿货划算并且方便有保障。这个价格除去海关漏税的部分基本是彼时原装进口烟油的底价(此处并不指某些非正常品牌,因为根据品牌不同30ml烟油在美国进货价可以在6-12美金不等。)
 
  贸易商(进口商)利润溢价20%左右将货分小批量出给某宝零售商或实体店(此时国内的实体店逐渐粉墨登场。)这时单个品牌由原来的寡头市场变为多个竞争者参与:某宝店铺与店铺之间;线上与线下之间;更有甚者,贸易商和进口商直接参与终端零售的竞争。)某宝商家的利润由原来的一倍(160元)降低到50%(120元)甚至由于贸易商的直接参与压到更低。在众多商家齐推广下,某品牌的需求量也会上升,此时,其他贸易商也参与进来。久而久之市场被杀成红海(Turn the blue ocean blood), 出现了一批“加5元就卖“的商家。(80-100元)。此时品牌的各个渠道均失去了利润,该品牌在国内市场也渐渐失去了价值。即使口味很好,没有商家愿意推广,渐渐曾经的明星品牌在中国市场失去了品牌价值和意义。因此,曾经如火如荼的品牌如今销声匿迹也就不奇怪了。
 为什么淘宝上的进口烟油比官网便宜
  这里还有一个原因是国外品牌商对国内市场的认知缺乏,急于进入这个全球潜力最大的市场。在规模化进货的时候,很多贸易商为拿到更好的价格填补市场需求往往Bit more than they can chew(贪多嚼不烂)。或者国外品牌商本身并未重视其品牌只为赚一笔快钱(比较Low的品牌,品牌商或品牌策略)或像第一阶段的特征,品牌商本身并未正式进入中国市场,而是由代理人操作。这造成了市场整体供过于求的现象。商家压着库存,与此同时又有新货进来。人人都急于降价抛货。
 
  这一阶段的进口烟油有以下特点:
 
  多数经典品牌仍为原装进口。
 
  市场参与者增多:线上零售;线下零售;大大小小的贸易商;微商等。
 
  品牌骤然增多,美国,欧洲,东南亚,日韩,加拿大,俄罗斯等品牌你方唱罢我登场。
 
  价格越来越低,利润越来越薄,商家撕逼严重。
 
  极少品牌商直接管理中间市场,主要放任给代理人或贸易商。
 
  少数明星品牌在某个阶段出货量惊人。
 
  几乎没有品牌能持久,出现行业所谓的冲三个月赶紧抛掉的说法。
 
  此时大多数人确实看到了中国市场的潜力,但某些品牌在国内市场已被中间人或贸易商作死。但与此同时不断有新的国外品牌挤进来。库存挤压严重,与此同时下游又不知疲倦地寻找新的货源和对比更低的价格。市场迎来了新的阶段,业内人称“本土化生产“。
 
  本土化生产再次降低了烟油成本。
 
  简单说下美国的烟油成本。基本原料PG, VG,香精可以说本土产与进口参半,玻璃瓶等基本从中国进口,美国人工成本明显高于中国。
 
  本土化生产之后,大料PG,VG基本来自于中国,占到烟油比例的90%左右,烟油瓶来自于中国,不必再漂洋过海再漂回来。运费清关一项基本省去1/4的成本。国外充其量用大桶运输进来调好的香精,根据其要求添加PG,VG即可。那么一瓶30ml所谓进口烟油的成本基本控制在了人民币20元左右,加上贸易商和零售商的利润溢价,正常零售价格在50-80元依然有利可图。市场参与者又有了利润空间,某些品牌出现了回光返照的迹象。
 
  既然进口的烟油品牌门槛如此之低,有些商家便想:干脆自己造一个进口品牌。于是跑到烟油作坊挑选现有的口味,设计Logo, 包装,跑到国外一圈拍些照片,注册个Ins, Facebook账号。一瓶30ml烟油成本可以低到10元以下,终端价格却和进口品牌分庭抗礼。于是,又一批高性价比,高利润空间的烟油品牌隆重面世了。
 
  在此之前,更有所谓的民间奇人将某些品牌的明星口味一模一样调制出来,以假乱真,价格低到想不到。这个就不说了,暂且把其归为国产假冒吧。
 
  此时品牌商或制造商对产品的原产地三缄其口或故意隐瞒。很多时候终端零售商知其一不知其二。这个谎言早已被除了消费者之外的利益相关者圆了又圆。
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